The accurate interpretation of experiments with matter at extreme densities and pressures is a notoriously difficult challenge. In a recent work [Dornheim et al., Nat. Commun. 13, 7911 (2022)], we have introduced a formally exact methodology that allows extracting the temperature of arbitrary complex materials without any model assumptions or simulations. Here, we provide a more detailed introduction to this approach and analyze the impact of experimental noise on the extracted temperatures. In particular, we extensively apply our method both to synthetic scattering data and to previous experimental measurements over a broad range of temperatures and wave numbers. We expect that our approach will be of high interest to a gamut of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics, and the compilation of highly accurate equation-of-state databases.

This paper was not sponsored or directly supported by First Light Fusion. This was an external project to which members of our team made collaborative contributions.

© 2023 Authors, Physics of Plasma, Vol. 30, Article ID 5.0139560, 2023; licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Tobias Dornheim, Maximilian P. Böhme, David A. Chapman, et al.


Physics of Plasmas